Clinical manifestations and immune response to tuberculosis

Mary Lilián Carabalí-Isajar, Oscar Hernán Rodríguez-Bejarano, Tatiana Amado, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, María Alejandra Izquierdo, Juan Ricardo Lutz, Marisol Ocampo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Tuberculosis is a far-reaching, high-impact disease. It is among the top ten causes of death worldwide caused by a single infectious agent; 1.6 million tuberculosis-related deaths were reported in 2021 and it has been estimated that a third of the world’s population are carriers of the tuberculosis bacillus but do not develop active disease. Several authors have attributed this to hosts’ differential immune response in which cellular and humoral components are involved, along with cytokines and chemokines. Ascertaining the relationship between TB development’s clinical manifestations and an immune response should increase understanding of tuberculosis pathophysiological and immunological mechanisms and correlating such material with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem globally. Mortality rates have not decreased significantly; rather, they are increasing. This review has thus been aimed at deepening knowledge regarding tuberculosis by examining published material related to an immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterial evasion mechanisms regarding such response and the relationship between pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical manifestations induced by this bacterium which are related to inflammation associated with tuberculosis dissemination through different routes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number206
Pages (from-to)206
JournalWorld Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 24 May 2023


  • Clinical manifestations
  • Immune response
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis


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