Pulmonary hemorrhage as a presentation of AL amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma: a case report: Bulletin of the National Research Centre

Claudia Birchenall-Jiménez, Jesús Perdomo-Polania, María Serna, Isabella Méndez-Carrillo, Felipe Hernández-Guerrero, Santiago Mantilla-García, María Quintero-Osorio, Ximena Cortés-Jaramillo

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Abstract Background The convergence of pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary amyloidosis, and multiple myeloma is uncommon. Amyloidosis can affect the pulmonary parenchyma in a diffuse, tracheobronchial, or parenchymal pattern and may rarely be associated with pulmonary hemorrhage. Additionally, pulmonary amyloidosis is not a frequent manifestation of multiple myeloma. We present a case of a male patient with pulmonary hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of AL pulmonary amyloidosis, and ultimately, confirmation of multiple myeloma through bone marrow biopsy. Case presentation The clinical case involves a 60-year-old male with no significant medical history, who was admitted presenting a clinical picture evolving over 6 months characterized by hemoptoic cough, accompanied by dyspnea, a decrease in functional capacity, and constitutional symptoms. Thoracic CT images revealed multilobar ground-glass opacities with suspected alveolar hemorrhage. In response to this clinical presentation, bronchoalveolar lavage with cytology was performed, revealing the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Given the complexity of the case, further investigation included a wedge biopsy of the lung. The pathological report indicated an atypical lymphoplasmacytoid proliferation with deposits of eosinophilic amorphous material, suggestive of amyloidosis. Congo red staining confirmed the presence of amyloid material. Elevated Kappa light chains were detected in both serum and urine, with an increased K/L ratio. Immunoglobulins G and M were found to be decreased. As part of the comprehensive assessment, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, confirming the diagnosis of multiple myeloma with 10% atypical plasma cells. In light of this diagnosis, appropriate treatment has been initiated to address this intricate medical condition effectively. Conclusion The present case report provides an illustrative perspective on an uncommon presentation of pulmonary amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma, with the initial manifestation being pulmonary hemorrhage. The findings from both the physical examination and laboratory tests were consistent with pulmonary amyloidosis, and definitive confirmation of the multiple myeloma diagnosis was achieved through bone marrow biopsy. This case highlights the significance of considering pulmonary amyloidosis as a potential cause of hemoptysis, especially in patients with associated risk factors for multiple myeloma. Early recognition of this clinical association is pivotal for precise diagnosis and prompt therapeutic intervention. The complexity of this case underscores the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach in unraveling intricate medical conditions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBull Natl Res Cent
Issue number1
StatePublished - 22 Jan 2024


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