Interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

Mariona Pinart, José Ramón Rueda, Gustavo A.S. Romero, Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez, Karime Osorio-Arango, Ana Nilce Silveira Maia-Elkhoury, Ludovic Reveiz, Vanessa M. Elias, John A. Tweed

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Resumen

Background: On the American continent, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and MCL) are diseases associated with infection by several species of Leishmania parasites. Pentavalent antimonials remain the first-choice treatment. There are alternative interventions, but reviewing their effectiveness and safety is important as availability is limited. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2009. Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions for all immuno-competent people who have American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ACML). Search methods: We updated our database searches of the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and CINAHL to August 2019. We searched five trials registers. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing either single or combination treatments for ACML in immuno-competent people, diagnosed by clinical presentation and Leishmania infection confirmed by smear, culture, histology, or polymerase chain reaction on a biopsy specimen. The comparators were either no treatment, placebo only, or another active compound. Data collection and analysis: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our key outcomes were the percentage of participants 'cured' at least three months after the end of treatment, adverse effects, and recurrence. We used GRADE to assess evidence certainty for each outcome. Main results: We included 75 studies (37 were new), totalling 6533 randomised participants with ATL. The studies were mainly conducted in Central and South America at regional hospitals, local healthcare clinics, and research centres. More male participants were included (mean age: roughly 28.9 years (SD: 7.0)). The most common confirmed species were L. braziliensis, L. panamensis, and L. mexicana. The most assessed interventions and comparators were non-antimonial systemics (particularly oral miltefosine) and antimonials (particularly meglumine antimoniate (MA), which was also a common intervention), respectively. Three studies included moderate-to-severe cases of mucosal leishmaniasis but none included cases with diffuse cutaneous or disseminated CL, considered the severe cutaneous form. Lesions were mainly ulcerative and located in the extremities and limbs. The follow-up (FU) period ranged from 28 days to 7 years. All studies had high or unclear risk of bias in at least one domain (especially performance bias). None of the studies reported the degree of functional or aesthetic impairment, scarring, or quality of life. Compared to placebo, at one-year FU, intramuscular (IM) MA given for 20 days to treat L. braziliensis and L. panamensis infections in ACML may increase the likelihood of complete cure (risk ratio (RR) 4.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 21.38; 2 RCTs, 157 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), but may also make little to no difference, since the 95% CI includes the possibility of both increased and reduced healing (cure rates), and IMMA probably increases severe adverse effects such as myalgias and arthralgias (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.96; 1 RCT, 134 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). IMMA may make little to no difference to the recurrence risk, but the 95% CI includes the possibility of both increased and reduced risk (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.17 to 19.26; 1 RCT, 127 participants; low-certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, at six-month FU, oral miltefosine given for 28 days to treat L. mexicana, L. panamensis and L. braziliensis infections in American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) probably improves the likelihood of complete cure (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.38), and probably increases nausea rates (RR 3.96, 95% CI 1.49 to 10.48) and vomiting (RR 6.92, 95% CI 2.68 to 17.86) (moderate-certainty evidence). Oral miltefosine may make little to no difference to the recurrence risk (RR 2.97, 95% CI 0.37 to 23.89; low-certainty evidence), but the 95% CI includes the possibility of both increased and reduced risk (all based on 1 RCT, 133 participants). Compared to IMMA, at 6 to 12 months FU, oral miltefosine given for 28 days to treat L. braziliensis, L. panamensis, L. guyanensis and L. amazonensis infections in ACML may make little to no difference to the likelihood of complete cure (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.23; 7 RCTs, 676 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on moderate-certainty evidence (3 RCTs, 464 participants), miltefosine probably increases nausea rates (RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.49) and vomiting (RR 4.76, 95% CI 1.82 to 12.46) compared to IMMA. Recurrence risk was not reported. For the rest of the key comparisons, recurrence risk was not reported, and risk of adverse events could not be estimated. Compared to IMMA, at 6 to 12 months FU, oral azithromycin given for 20 to 28 days to treat L. braziliensis infections in ACML probably reduces the likelihood of complete cure (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76; 2 RCTs, 93 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared to intravenous MA (IVMA) and placebo, at 12 month FU, adding topical imiquimod to IVMA, given for 20 days to treat L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis and L. peruviana infections in ACL probably makes little to no difference to the likelihood of complete cure (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.80; 1 RCT, 80 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared to MA, at 6 months FU, one session of local thermotherapy to treat L. panamensis and L. braziliensis infections in ACL reduces the likelihood of complete cure (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95; 1 RCT, 292 participants; high-certainty evidence). Compared to IMMA and placebo, at 26 weeks FU, adding oral pentoxifylline to IMMA to treat CL (species not stated) probably makes little to no difference to the likelihood of complete cure (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.18; 1 RCT, 70 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Authors' conclusions: Evidence certainty was mostly moderate or low, due to methodological shortcomings, which precluded conclusive results. Overall, both IMMA and oral miltefosine probably result in an increase in cure rates, and nausea and vomiting are probably more common with miltefosine than with IMMA. Future trials should investigate interventions for mucosal leishmaniasis and evaluate recurrence rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis and its progression to mucosal disease.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículoCD004834
PublicaciónCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Volumen2020
N.º8
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 27 ago. 2020
Publicado de forma externa

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